100 TAI ouour It must be remembered that the bare root-word, by itself* can, as explained in the introduction to the family, bo iised for any tense Adverbs.—Words perform the function of adverbs, just as they do those of other parts of speech Most of them aw compounds, arid the meaning of the separate members is not always very clear Examples arc,-— mu-tiai, time-now, then, cMm, quick-come-swift, as soon as. ii, previcms-place-time, as usual. mf-lau-kin, ever, at any time. The negative particles arc lau, and wa, not The usual verb substantive is u, be, but, with lau, ml is used instead. In the thiid specimen we have also JHW, not, and if is not. The Klumti negatives are u (pronounced un or n )~audftz<5 Slun, lias <LMI find mau, Siamese haa «ai anil in*. As in other Indo-Chinese languages, the force of an adverb is most frequently obtained by compounding the word performing the function of a verb with some other word which gives it the necessary colour, Thus pai, go, nait unexpectedness;pai- »«», (to) go unexpectedly. So many others, Prepositions and pQStpOsitionS,-Tho following are examples of the way in which words perform the functions of post- or pre-positions. They can all, as usual, perform other functions as required :— dk, outside ; run dfc, outside the house, bai, on (or to put); Wiring lai mdnt on his body, kdnrpd) place-side, towards; man Jcan-pd, towards her shau (of. kkau), in (or to enter); nli-dui shew, m the field an, before; an kau-mai} before me, dn-m, before^before, before; man an-na, before thec. M-lang> oil-back, after; ti-nan Ui-Ung, after that. to (or ka)-ldng, at-back, after; M-ldng Uw lew mi mm-m, after not days now many, after a few days. kd~tau. at below, under; kd-tau a-nan tun, under that tree. Tetitog* middle,between; kldng ahdng, between both. pwt> beyond; pm mung fan, beyond a country far, a land far away. Um> after; lun-lang> after back, afterwards. doin> with j doin Mng-shtu, with harlots; &<w doin, with me ; chdm-doin joined- withywith; Jcha-lik cMm-doin> amongst servants; dmn-chdm kmi-rik-tai, with friends. ftftau* enter, m, into, 0114 na-fap khau, into the Held, tin khan, on on the feet; khau ftan, into the compound; Miau m, in the hand; Khan d-ntin rm, in that house no, before; &*& (see above); KMnp»a> before, in the presence of, no or nu, above, on; nMt above the head, against ipha n'o-ro, against Heaven; in* tf, on the tree; no Ung man, on his back; m doi» on the top of a Mil; no mS- , oa a horse.